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Electropneumatics. Basic Level

Язык английский. В учебнике приведены терминология, основные понятия, графическое обозначение элементов электропневмоавтоматики, рассматриваются конструкция, принцип действия и методика расчета электрических преобразователей сигналов и датчиков сигналов.
Описаны конструкции и даны характеристики электропневмораспределителей, свободно программируемых контроллеров и исполнительных устройств систем электропневмоавтоматики. Изложены рекомендации по выбору, расчету и проектированию электропневматических систем управления технологическим оборудованием. Даны численные примеры расчета основных элементов.

Оглавление
Contents . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 1
Preface . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 4
Chapter 1 – advent . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 5
1. 1 functions of pneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6
1. 2 uncomplicated regulate engineering phrases . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8
1. three Pneumatic and electropneumatic controllers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14
1. four merits of electropneumatic controllers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 17
Chapter 2 – basics of electric know-how. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 19
2. 1 Direct present and alternating present . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20
2. 2 Ohm's legislations. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 22
2. three functionality of a solenoid . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 24
2. four functionality of a capacitor . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26
2. five functionality of a diode. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27
2. 6 size in electric circuits . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 28
Chapter three – elements and assemblies within the electric sign keep an eye on part. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 35
3. 1 strength offer unit . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36
3. 2 Push button and keep watch over switches. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37
3. three Sensors for measuring displacement and strain . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39
3. four Relays and contactors. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 49
3. five Programmable good judgment controllers. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 55
3. 6 total constitution of the sign processing half . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 56
Chapter four – Electrically actuated directional keep an eye on valves. .. .. .. .. .. 59
4. 1 capabilities . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .60
4. 2 development and mode of operation. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 62
4. three forms and pneumatic functionality facts . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .74
4. four functionality info of solenoid coils. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83
4. five electric connection of solenoid coils . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .86
Chapter five – constructing an electropneumatic regulate method. .. .. .. .89
5. 1 method for constructing a regulate method. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 90
5. 2 undertaking layout method . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .92
5. three pattern program: undertaking layout of a lifting gadget . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 96
5. four technique for enforcing the regulate approach. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .109
Chapter 6 – Documentation for an electropneumatic keep watch over approach. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .113
6. 1 functionality diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .115
6. 2 functionality chart . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 119
6. three Pneumatic circuit diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 127
6. four electric circuit diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 144
6. five Terminal connection diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .158
Chapter 7 – safeguard measures for electropneumatic regulate structures. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .169
7. 1 hazards and protecting measures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .170
7. 2 impression of electrical present at the human physique . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .172
7. three Measures to guard opposed to injuries with electrical present . .. .. .. .. 175
7. four regulate panel and indicating parts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .176
7. five conserving electric equipment
against environmental impacts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .181
Chapter eight – Relay keep an eye on structures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 185
8. 1 functions of relay keep an eye on platforms in electropneumatics . .. .. .. .. 186
8. 2 Direct and oblique regulate. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 186
8. three common sense operations . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 189
8. four sign garage . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 192
8. five hold up . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 198
8. 6 series keep watch over with sign storage
by double solenoid valves . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 199
8. 7 Circuit for comparing keep watch over parts . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 208
8. eight series regulate for a lifting equipment . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 211
Chapter nine – layout of modern
electropneumatic keep an eye on structures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 235
9. 1 traits and advancements in electropneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 236
9. 2 Pneumatic drives. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 237
9. three Sensors . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 245
9. four sign processing . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 246
9. five Directional regulate valves . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 247
9. 6 glossy set up recommendations. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 251
9. 7 lowering tubing attempt . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 261
9. three lowering wiring attempt. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 261
9. nine Proportional pneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 270
Appendix . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 279
Index. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 281
Standards. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 291

Скриншот

The Case for the Real Jesus: A Journalist Investigates Current Attacks on the Identity of Christ

Has sleek scholarship debunked the conventional Christ? Has the church suppressed the reality approximately Jesus to develop its personal schedule? What if the true Jesus is much varied from the atoning Savior worshipped in the course of the centuries? within the Case for the genuine Jesus, former award-winning felony editor Lee Strobel explores such hot-button questions as: * Did the church suppress historic non-biblical records that paint a extra actual photograph of Jesus than the 4 Gospels?

Additional info for Science in the Twentieth Century Guidebook

Example text

Control functions and logical associations are switched by auxiliary contacts. In electropneumatic controllers, electrical currents and power are low. For this reason, they can be implemented with auxiliary contactors. Main or power contactors are not required. 5 Programmable logic controllers Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used for processing of signals in binary control systems. The PLC is particularly suitable for binary control systems with numerous input and output signals and requiring complex signal combinations.

When the current is interrupted, the valve switches back and the piston rod retracts. 2 Construction and mode of operation Electrically actuated directional control valves are switched with the aid of solenoids. They can be divided into two groups: „Spring-return valves only remain in the actuated position as long as current flows through the solenoid. „Double solenoid valves retain the last switched position even when no current flows through the solenoid. Initial position In the initial position, all solenoids of an electrically actuated directional control valve are de-energised and the solenoids are inactive.

Fig. 11: Measuring resistance Festo Didactic • TP201 32 Chapter 2 Sources of error Application example Measuring devices cannot measure voltage, current and resistance to any desired degree of accuracy. The measuring device itself influences the circuit it is measuring, and no measuring device can display a value precisely. The permissible display error of a measuring device is given as a percentage of the upper limit of the effective range. 5 % of the upper limit of the effective range. 5 measuring device is used to measure the voltage of a 9 V battery.

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