By Rakesh Chandra Gaur

The handbook covers the recent syllabus of the semester scheme for first 12 months in R.T.U. and different universities. It encompasses the sensible purposes of the topic, that's the true desire of the hour. This guide comprises the experiments to be performed by means of the entire first yr scholars of Rajasthan Technical collage in moment semester. a number of the experiments like decision of dissolved oxygen also are helpful for the better point resulting in the decision of BOD. It comprises the idea approximately each test intimately, because the Environmental Engineering Laboratory is obligatory for all first 12 months scholars of R.T.U. and the speculation paper is non-compulsory. It comprises the need i.e., the importance of acting the test. The gear, apparatus required has been sincerely pointed out for each scan, to set up the laboratory. evaluate questions on the finish of every bankruptcy are there to check the certainty of the reader. the tactic of getting ready the reagents has been basically elaborated to facilitate the behavior of the experiments. uncomplicated equipment were chosen so far as attainable, because the curriculum is for first 12 months scholars of all branches.

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So it is important to find the amount of nitrate in drinking water though it is a difficult task and requires spectrophotometer also Apparatus (i) Spectrophotometer with a range of 300 – 700 nm. (ii) Nessler tubes capacity 100 ml Reagents (i) Standard silver sulphate (ii) Phenol disulphonic acid (iii) Ammonium hydroxide (iv) Stock nitrate solution: Dry potassium nitrate (KNO3) in an oven at 105°C for 24 hours. 1631 g in water and dilute to 1000 ml. 0 ml = 100 micro gram NO3- N. Preserve with 2 ml CHCl3/l (v) Standard nitrate solution Environmental Engineering Lab Manual 28 Procedure (i) Take 50 ml of filtered sample in a flask.

E. say 60 seconds. However in this test as the detention time is 60 minutes, so it is expected that almost all (organic as well as inorganic) particles get settled down. It is a useful test to determine the sewage characteristics regarding the solids that can be separated easily as apart of the treatment. This removal of solids improves the efficiency of other unit operations as the biological treatment etc. ml/L of settleable solids indicates that………………….. Quiz Questions 1. Turbidity is caused due to (i) The suspended particles (ii) The settleable particles (iii) The colloidal particles (iv) All of the above Experiment 11: Measurement of Settleable Solids in Sewage 2.

Ii) 2. (iv) 3. (ii) 4. (ii) 5. (iv) This page intentionally left blank EXPERIMENT 7 Object: Measurement of Fluoride in W ater Water THEORY Fluoride is essential for human beings to fight against dental caries. The desirable concentration is 1 mg/l, if it is more than this it proves to be harmful. Fluoride concentration of more than 3 ppm is not allowed in potable water in any case. 5 ppm. Actually the higher concentration of fluoride leads to the discoloration of teeth known as dental fluorosis.

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