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Fit-up for these processes is critical, and root openings must be held to a minimum (preferably metal to metal contact). To obtain the proper fit-up for welding with these processes, weid joints must be prepared by machining. Fortunately, welds made with the electron beam or laser beam normally do not require filler metal addition. However, with either process, the joint must be positioned under the welding head, and the work or head moved automatically while maintaining the beam on the joint. The electroslag welding process is unique from a design viewpoint.

B. Single-pass welds or first pass of multiple pass welds. The size of the weId need not exceed the thickness of the thinner section being joined, provided sufficient preheat is used to ensure weId soundness. The minimum fiHet weid size is intended to ensure sufficient heat input to reduce the possibility of cracking in either the heat-affected zone or weid metal, especiaHy in a restrained joint. The minimum size applies if it is greater than the size required to carry design stresses. CYCLIC LOADING When metals are subjected to cyclic tensile or alternating tensile-compressive stress, they may fail by fatigue.

Are welding proeesses are diseussed in the Welding Handbook, Vol. , 1978. 11. Eleetron beam welding is eovered in the Welding Handbook, Vol. , 1980: 169-215. 32/ DESIGN FOR WELDING tempered steels can be welded with minimal degradation of properties. With some designs, welds can be made with the components in the finishmachined state. In contrast, components that are welded with conventional arc welding processes require excess stock allowance for machining the weldment in those areas that must meet elose dimensional tolerances.

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