By Martin Saunders, R. James Cross (auth.), Takeshi Akasaka, Shigeru Nagase (eds.)

To the eyes of a chemist, carbon is unquestionably some of the most attention-grabbing components of the periodic desk. essentially, the digital constitution and atomic dimension of carbon allows this aspect to shape various bonds with different components and, most significantly, with different carbon atoms as weIl. those distinctive beneficial properties result in the amazingly complex molecular constructions we come across e. g. in existence sciences and natural chemistry. in fact, the technical significance of carbon is enormou- yet i do not are looking to hold too many coals to Newcastle. promenade the perspective of an astrophysicist or chemist, the importance of carbon lies within the proven fact that it's the such a lot plentiful condensable aspect in area. Born within the inside of stars, and from there expelled into the interstellar medium, it initiates the formation of easy and intricate molecules and of nanoscopic grains. those in flip shape large clouds in area - the birthplace of recent stars and planetary structures. The decisive position of carbon in interstellar chemistry is largely authorised and the hunt for a growing number of households of interstellar carbon-bearing molecules is a subject of ongoing study. The interdisciplinary point of carbon additionally matters its numerous stable kinds, during which C and the opposite closed-cage fullerenes are definitely one of the most renowned 60 newcomers.

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EPR spectrum of P@C 60 in solution. The insert shows details of the low-field multiplet. 6(2) compared with the center component. This is in good agreement with a limiting value of 312, when modulation of the ZFS is assumed as dominating relaxation process [20]. 5 kHz corresponding to T2e = 100 Ils under comparable conditions, spin de-phasing in P@C 60 is considerably faster. 6 Ils. Assuming that in both compounds modulation of ZFS by collision-induced cage deformation is dominant, the variance of the fluctuating ZFS tensor at the phosphorus atom is one order of magnitude larger and can be estimated as 50 MHz [20].

In a first study of this kind we could show that for N@C 60 in solution modulation of ZFS induced by collisions with solvent molecules is the leading contribution to T le and T ze [2]. Furthermore it became evident that otherwise dominating spin relaxation mechanisms like spin-rotational interaction (SR) can be neglected because absence of spin transfer to the cage renders these compounds insensitive to rotation of the cage. The high symmetry of the cage (Ih on average) apparently suppresses contributions from anisotropic hfi, which was confirmed by two-dimensional EPR experiments.

3. 1. EPR properties Since the discovery of the fullerenes with their appealing, nearly spherical structure there was mounting evidence that a wide variety of ions or even neutral atoms can be encased by these all-carbon molecules. Initially, group III elements like scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum were encapsulated during fullerene synthesis by a hitherto unidentified process. , the formation of a rather strong mixed ioniclcovalent bond. [6, 7] In case of encapsulation of group III elements, one has an odd number of electrons in the uncharged compounds, and their presence could be detected in trace quantities because of their paramagnetism, a property of considerable importance not only in the early days of their investigation.

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