By G. Prede, D. Scholz

Язык английский. В учебнике приведены терминология, основные понятия, графическое обозначение элементов электропневмоавтоматики, рассматриваются конструкция, принцип действия и методика расчета электрических преобразователей сигналов и датчиков сигналов.
Описаны конструкции и даны характеристики электропневмораспределителей, свободно программируемых контроллеров и исполнительных устройств систем электропневмоавтоматики. Изложены рекомендации по выбору, расчету и проектированию электропневматических систем управления технологическим оборудованием. Даны численные примеры расчета основных элементов.

Оглавление

Contents ............................................................................................ 1
Preface ............................................................................................ 4
Chapter 1 – advent ...................................................................... 5
1.1 purposes of pneumatics............................................................... 6
1.2 simple regulate engineering phrases ....................................................... 8
1.3 Pneumatic and electropneumatic controllers ................................. 14
1.4 benefits of electropneumatic controllers .................................. 17
Chapter 2 – basics of electric technology........................ 19
2.1 Direct present and alternating present ............................................. 20
2.2 Ohm's Law...................................................................................... 22
2.3 functionality of a solenoid .................................................................... 24
2.4 functionality of a capacitor ................................................................... 26
2.5 functionality of a diode......................................................................... 27
2.6 size in electric circuits .................................................. 28
Chapter three – elements and assemblies within the electric sign keep an eye on section.................................... 35
3.1 strength provide unit ........................................................................... 36
3.2 Push button and keep watch over switches................................................... 37
3.3 Sensors for measuring displacement and strain ....................... 39
3.4 Relays and contactors.................................................................... 49
3.5 Programmable common sense controllers...................................................... 55
3.6 total constitution of the sign processing half ............................... 56
Chapter four – Electrically actuated directional keep watch over valves...........59
4.1 capabilities ........................................................................................60
4.2 development and mode of operation...............................................62
4.3 varieties and pneumatic functionality facts ........................................74
4.4 functionality information of solenoid coils.................................................83
4.5 electric connection of solenoid coils ............................................86
Chapter five – constructing an electropneumatic regulate system........89
5.1 method for constructing a regulate system.....................................90
5.2 undertaking layout process ................................................................92
5.3 pattern software: undertaking layout of a lifting machine .....................96
5.4 strategy for enforcing the regulate system............................109
Chapter 6 – Documentation for an electropneumatic keep an eye on system................................113
6.1 functionality diagram..........................................................................115
6.2 functionality chart ...............................................................................119
6.3 Pneumatic circuit diagram.............................................................127
6.4 electric circuit diagram...............................................................144
6.5 Terminal connection diagram........................................................158
Chapter 7 – safeguard measures for electropneumatic keep an eye on systems..............................169
7.1 hazards and protecting measures ................................................170
7.2 impact of electrical present at the human physique ................................172
7.3 Measures to guard opposed to injuries with electrical present .........175
7.4 regulate panel and indicating elements..........................................176
7.5 holding electric equipment
against environmental influences..................................................181
Chapter eight – Relay keep watch over structures ................................................. 185
8.1 purposes of relay keep watch over structures in electropneumatics ......... 186
8.2 Direct and oblique control............................................................. 186
8.3 common sense operations ........................................................................... 189
8.4 sign garage .............................................................................. 192
8.5 hold up ............................................................................................ 198
8.6 series regulate with sign storage
by double solenoid valves ............................................................ 199
8.7 Circuit for comparing keep an eye on parts ......................................... 208
8.8 series keep an eye on for a lifting equipment ............................................ 211
Chapter nine – layout of modern
electropneumatic keep an eye on platforms ............................. 235
9.1 tendencies and advancements in electropneumatics.......................... 236
9.2 Pneumatic drives.......................................................................... 237
9.3 Sensors ........................................................................................ 245
9.4 sign processing ......................................................................... 246
9.5 Directional keep an eye on valves ............................................................. 247
9.6 sleek install concepts........................................................ 251
9.7 lowering tubing attempt .................................................................. 261
9.3 lowering wiring effort................................................................... 261
9.9 Proportional pneumatics............................................................... 270
Appendix ........................................................................................ 279
Index.................................................................................................... 281
Standards............................................................................................ 291

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Electropneumatics. Basic Level

Язык английский. В учебнике приведены терминология, основные понятия, графическое обозначение элементов электропневмоавтоматики, рассматриваются конструкция, принцип действия и методика расчета электрических преобразователей сигналов и датчиков сигналов.
Описаны конструкции и даны характеристики электропневмораспределителей, свободно программируемых контроллеров и исполнительных устройств систем электропневмоавтоматики. Изложены рекомендации по выбору, расчету и проектированию электропневматических систем управления технологическим оборудованием. Даны численные примеры расчета основных элементов.

Оглавление
Contents . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 1
Preface . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 4
Chapter 1 – advent . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 5
1. 1 functions of pneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6
1. 2 easy keep watch over engineering phrases . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8
1. three Pneumatic and electropneumatic controllers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14
1. four benefits of electropneumatic controllers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 17
Chapter 2 – basics of electric know-how. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 19
2. 1 Direct present and alternating present . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20
2. 2 Ohm's legislations. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 22
2. three functionality of a solenoid . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 24
2. four functionality of a capacitor . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26
2. five functionality of a diode. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27
2. 6 size in electric circuits . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 28
Chapter three – parts and assemblies within the electric sign keep watch over part. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 35
3. 1 energy offer unit . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36
3. 2 Push button and regulate switches. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37
3. three Sensors for measuring displacement and strain . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39
3. four Relays and contactors. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 49
3. five Programmable good judgment controllers. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 55
3. 6 total constitution of the sign processing half . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 56
Chapter four – Electrically actuated directional keep an eye on valves. .. .. .. .. .. 59
4. 1 capabilities . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .60
4. 2 building and mode of operation. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 62
4. three kinds and pneumatic functionality facts . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .74
4. four functionality info of solenoid coils. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83
4. five electric connection of solenoid coils . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .86
Chapter five – constructing an electropneumatic keep an eye on process. .. .. .. .89
5. 1 method for constructing a keep an eye on process. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 90
5. 2 undertaking layout process . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .92
5. three pattern software: undertaking layout of a lifting equipment . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 96
5. four strategy for imposing the keep watch over procedure. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .109
Chapter 6 – Documentation for an electropneumatic keep watch over approach. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .113
6. 1 functionality diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .115
6. 2 functionality chart . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 119
6. three Pneumatic circuit diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 127
6. four electric circuit diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 144
6. five Terminal connection diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .158
Chapter 7 – protection measures for electropneumatic keep watch over platforms. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .169
7. 1 hazards and protecting measures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .170
7. 2 influence of electrical present at the human physique . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .172
7. three Measures to guard opposed to injuries with electrical present . .. .. .. .. 175
7. four regulate panel and indicating parts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .176
7. five preserving electric equipment
against environmental impacts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .181
Chapter eight – Relay regulate platforms . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 185
8. 1 functions of relay regulate structures in electropneumatics . .. .. .. .. 186
8. 2 Direct and oblique keep watch over. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 186
8. three good judgment operations . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 189
8. four sign garage . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 192
8. five hold up . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 198
8. 6 series regulate with sign storage
by double solenoid valves . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 199
8. 7 Circuit for comparing keep watch over components . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 208
8. eight series keep watch over for a lifting equipment . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 211
Chapter nine – layout of modern
electropneumatic keep watch over structures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 235
9. 1 tendencies and advancements in electropneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 236
9. 2 Pneumatic drives. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 237
9. three Sensors . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 245
9. four sign processing . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 246
9. five Directional keep watch over valves . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 247
9. 6 sleek set up strategies. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 251
9. 7 decreasing tubing attempt . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 261
9. three lowering wiring attempt. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 261
9. nine Proportional pneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 270
Appendix . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 279
Index. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 281
Standards. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 291

Скриншот

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Additional info for Electropneumatics. Basic Level

Example text

Control functions and logical associations are switched by auxiliary contacts. In electropneumatic controllers, electrical currents and power are low. For this reason, they can be implemented with auxiliary contactors. Main or power contactors are not required. 5 Programmable logic controllers Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used for processing of signals in binary control systems. The PLC is particularly suitable for binary control systems with numerous input and output signals and requiring complex signal combinations.

When the current is interrupted, the valve switches back and the piston rod retracts. 2 Construction and mode of operation Electrically actuated directional control valves are switched with the aid of solenoids. They can be divided into two groups: „Spring-return valves only remain in the actuated position as long as current flows through the solenoid. „Double solenoid valves retain the last switched position even when no current flows through the solenoid. Initial position In the initial position, all solenoids of an electrically actuated directional control valve are de-energised and the solenoids are inactive.

Fig. 11: Measuring resistance Festo Didactic • TP201 32 Chapter 2 Sources of error Application example Measuring devices cannot measure voltage, current and resistance to any desired degree of accuracy. The measuring device itself influences the circuit it is measuring, and no measuring device can display a value precisely. The permissible display error of a measuring device is given as a percentage of the upper limit of the effective range. 5 % of the upper limit of the effective range. 5 measuring device is used to measure the voltage of a 9 V battery.

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