By Richard C. Johnson

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1990). No improvement was obtained in the predicted streamflow using a range of values for this parameter. This was thought to be due to the regular occurrence of rainfall and relatively low rates of evaporation minirnising the effect when consideringdaily data. For the model, rainfall excess was therefore considered to be proportional to rainfall. . was described using a series of istic response times of the separate unit . hydrographs for these flow components. Generally there are two identifiable components corresponding to two linear storages acting in parallel, they have different response times to .

It is interesting to note (Figure 29) that the three years with the lowest evaporation. 1985, 1987 and 1988, were also the three years with the highest proportions of precipitation falling in the surmmer months. 2 Pemn potential transpiration Stimates A catchment study aimed at determining water use is of limited value unless there is a basis for comparison with results obtained elsewhere and for the extrapolation of results to other areas. A widely used basis for comparing meteorological conditions is the Penman (1948) estimate of potential evaporation, Et.

The maps can be used to help identify source areas within the catchment, which are potentially important in the control of the chemical characteristics of the stream and in sediment transport. The maps provide a simple tool which allows hydrologically important differences resulting from the topography to be identified. 3 Topographic model for streamflow analysis (TOPMODEL) TOPMODEL is a physically based, semidistributed model developed for use in predicting and understanding rainfall-nnoff mechanisms.

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