By Georgi Muskhelishvili

This ebook explores the double coding estate of DNA, that's manifested within the electronic and analog details varieties as interdependent codes. This double coding precept could be utilized to all residing platforms, from the extent of the person mobile to whole social structures, obvious as platforms of communique. additional themes mentioned contain the ever-present challenge of logical typing, which displays our inherent incapability to at the same time understand the excellence among discontinuity and continuity, the matter of time, and the peculiarities of autopoietic residing structures. it's proven that the medical “truths” that seem to be coherent buildings connecting the scientifically validated observations by means of the foundations of good judgment are actually regularly relative and not absolute.

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This means that all the changes in the system are only changes of an inner state, whereas the environment, instead of being instructive (as explicitly or implicitly assumed in the evolution theory), rather acts as a “catalyst” triggering the internal changes. Put another way, the changes resulting from the interactions between an operationally closed system and an environmental agent are “brought about by the disturbing agent, but determined by the structure of the disturbed system” (Maturana and Varela 1987).

At bottom line, both approaches assume disparate levels of organizational complexity, and by virtue of this very assumption, both are essentially reductionist approaches (Fig. 2). In contrast, holistic approach assumes self-referentiality as an organizationally invariant characteristic of living matter, independent of its compositional and/or morphological complexity (Muskhelishvili and Travers 2013). Indeed, in terms of their basic organization, a unicellular bacterium and an elephant are very much the same—they are both alive.

The term “gene” is thus often defined operationally depending on the context, evoking various notions that are featuring a gene The Essential Biological Unit of Evolution 33 either as a physical structure, or functional entity (Prohaska and Stadler 2008). Despite this ambiguity, the focus on a gene as an explicit biological unit of natural selection provoked wide attention, perhaps due to the posited extreme view maintaining that the organisms represent mere “vehicles” constructed by “selfish” genes for the purpose of facilitated propagation2 (Dawkins 1976).

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