By T. M. Chang, H. F. Crombag, K. D. J. M. van der Drift, J. M. Moonen (auth.)

History the current e-book is a translation and partly an version of a research the authors performed for the Dutch Ministry of schooling. numerous years in the past, the Dutch gurus made up our minds to came across an Open college, a method of distance studying specially fitted to scholars merely capable or prepared to dedicate a part of their time to their reviews, and, furthermore, no longer in most cases able to learning at fastened occasions or locations. A preparatory committee was once created, which released a initial document in 1 1978. This document used to be mostly curious about the categories of classes the Open collage should still supply and the categories of scholars it deliberate to sign up. The record additionally mentioned attainable educating equipment or media of the Open college. The fundamental end used to be that written guideline should still represent the elemental instructing medium, and that different media (e. g. , automated guide or televi­ sion) have been merely to be additional if the written medium did not detect the specified instructing targets. This choice was once often according to issues of fee, because the committee anticipated written guide to be the most cost effective replacement attainable. no matter if this can be in truth precise may be mentioned later during this ebook. We have been then requested to think again the various chances of instructing equipment and media in additional aspect, by way of their differential instructing results, expenditures of program, and the committee's choice for the print medium. paintings was once began in this task in 1978 and accomplished a yr later.

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This passivity remains written instruction's most vital limitation. The advantages of written instruction mentioned above include its independence of time and place and its selectivity. Images add nothing to these advantages, but neither do they diminish them in any way. To sum up, it may be concluded that images added to text may eliminate some of the limitations of pure written instruction without infringing on its advantages. Images, therefore, constitute an important extension of the educational possibilities of written instruction.

Assignments therefore activate skills, preventing the student from relapsing into the passivity (minimal activity) of merely reading what has been written. These skills comprise, in the first instance, operations on knowledge: not only interpretive reading, but also finding implications, analyzing components, synthesis, paraphrase, extrapolation of arguments, evaluation. When the subject itself is of an abstract-symbolic nature, assignments also may involve operations with knowledge: mathematical assignments, translations, and so forth.

2 This has its drawbacks, but also its advantages. 35 36 DISTANCE LEARNING Disadvantages of Written Instruction We shall first discuss the disadvantages - rather, limitations - of written instruction as a substitute for direct experience. The first limitation concerns the limited linguistic encodability of reality. Not all facets of reality can be easily trapped in words or some other symbolism. Visual attributes of reality are apparently better suited for verbal depiction than characteristics conveyed through other modalities of sense: sounds, smells, feelings, tastes.

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