By Robert Joseph Peckham, Robert Joseph Peckham, Jordan Gyozo

This e-book is the 1st publication at the improvement and alertness of electronic terrain modelling for nearby making plans and coverage help. it's a compilation of study effects by means of foreign learn teams on the ecu Commission's Joint study Centre, delivering medical help to the improvement and implementation of european environmental coverage. purposes contain the pan-European River and Catchment Database, ecu Flood Alert method, ecu electronic Soil Database and substitute solar power assets, all mentioned in a GIS framework within the context of the INfrastructure for SPatial info in Europe (INSPIRE). This practice-oriented e-book is suggested to practising environmental modellers and GIS specialists engaged on nearby making plans and coverage help applications.

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Spurious segments can be reduced if relief is increased around streamlines in flat areas. Thus, the extracted channel network is reduced first to single-pixel width with the mathematical morphological method of skeletonisation (Soille 2003). The skeleton is the geometric middle line of the multiple channels. Next, the whole skeleton network is burnt into the DEM by subtracting a constant value from a pit and flat corrected DEM. The DEM is subsequently smoothed along the obtained one pixel-wide valleys with a moving average filter.

Large pits can also result from insufficient grid spacing that cannot resolve pit outlet elevation and create artificial dams. Dams can be treated by burning blue lines into the DEM or by dam breaching algorithms (Garbrecht and Martz 1995). With respect to modelling low or high relief terrain, the largest differences in calculated gradients occur at pits, peaks, valleys and ridges (Guth 1995). Jones (1998) compared seven different gradient algorithms based on their performance on a synthetic surface of known analytical derivatives.

The numerical resolution of heights defining vertical resolution has a strong impact on gradient calculations. Elevation data is 32 Gyozo Jordan often converted to the nearest integer in DEMs. Carter (1992) has shown that rounding results in increasing systematic error in slope and, particularly, in aspect calculations as slopes become gentle. Because of their smoothing effect eight-point finite difference methods yield the best approximation of gradient in this case (Carter 1992). Experience demonstrates that a minimum slope value Jmin > 0 exists under which computation of aspect using D arctan(gy/gx), is inappropriate and the terrain should be classified as flat or as singular point (peak, pit or saddle point) with undefined aspect.

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