By Fernando Savater

Este diccionario singular, fruto de una visión own y no un trabajo académico o erudito, no pretende ser un libro para consultar, sino para leer. En sus páginas Fernando Savater aborda los angeles vida y obra de grandes pensadores como Voltaire, Rousseau, Spinoza, Nietzsche, Santayana o Bertrand Russell, y reflexiona sobre abundantes temas oficialmente filosóficos, como los angeles naturaleza, los angeles muerte, los angeles justicia o el ser. Pero el autor no rechaza otros que rara vez figuran en diccionarios de filosofía, como el dinero, l. a. enfermedad, los sueños, el erotismo o los angeles estupidez. Y aunque toma partido en diversas polémicas contemporáneas (la confusión entre ética y política, los angeles recaída en los angeles religión de ciertos pensadores, l. a. egolatría mística o revolucionaria, l. a. crítica posmoderna de l. a. universalidad...), prefiere ocuparse ante todo de los problemas de los hombres que de las querellas de los filósofos. Un diccionario heterodoxo que es una sugestiva iniciación en l. a. filosofía.

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As Duhem reads it, the passage warns explicitly against the naive assumption that (as van Fraassen would put it) every part of a successful model must correspond to something in the world. Of course this sensible admonition is compatible with the thought that the existing astronomical models are to be regarded as stages along the way to an altogether accurate representation. As we have stressed, Wctionalism requires more than the recognition that scientiWc theories may, at any given stage, involve idealizations or imperfections.

And if it constructs and thinks up causes—and it has certainly thought up many—nevertheless it does not think them up in order to persuade anyone of their truth but only in order that they may provide a correct basis for calculation. But since for one and the same movement varying hypotheses are proposed from time to time, as eccentricity or epicycle for the movement of the sun, the astronomer much prefers to take the one which is easiest Pr o b l e m s i n t h e Hi s t o ry o f Fi c t i o n a l i s m 27 to grasp.

Pr o b l e m s i n t h e Hi s t o ry o f Fi c t i o n a l i s m 33 The second key witness in Duhem’s case for Wctionalism in ancient astronomy is not himself an astronomer, but rather a late neo-platonist commentator on the astronomical tradition. In the Wnal chapter of his Hypotyposis—an elementary exposition of Ptolemaic astronomy—Proclus (410–485) takes up the status of epicycles and eccentrics. In Duhem’s version of the crucial passage, he writes as follows: Either these circles are merely Wctive and ideal, or they have a real existence amid the planetary spheres and are to be found inside the spheres.

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