By Jan Zielonka, Alex Pravda

This moment quantity in a chain of books on democratic consolidation in japanese Europe analyzes the exterior parameters of any such consolidation in 13 japanese eu nations. It explores how varied foreign actors and diverse monetary, cultural, and safety kinds of transnational pressures have formed democratic politics within the zone, specifically during the last decade.

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Even if it is extremely difficult to generalize about the overall role of the international dimension in economic policy, in some decisions, such as adoption of the Balcerowicz Plan, external factors played a key part (see Chapter 11). As László Valki notes in Chapter 10, pressures from the IMF were crucial in moving the Horn government to introduce austerity measures in 1995. In both instances, the moves associated with external influence formed part of generally successful economic strategies. Economic 16 J.

Of the Western actors, the EU has gone the furthest in applying conditionality. Given the benefits it can offer, it could potentially wield a great deal of influence as a result. 39 While in some cases, conditionality may be largely superfluous (as the governments needed little outside pressure to undertake reforms), the EU conditions could have been influential where democratic reforms were more contested. Setting conditions has provided a guide for governments pursuing the rewards on offer, and given them an excuse for launching unpopular reforms.

The generally pro-Western climate of opinion in Hungary helped to account for the toning down of nationalist elements within Antall's positions and the improvement in relations with Slovakia and Romania (Chapter 10). Some politicians have tried to lead from the front on questions of external involvement. In Klaus's case this meant taking neo-Western positions; in Mečiar's, it entailed a far more critical stance. For both, positions adopted on the question of international involvement brought gains in domestic standing.

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