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Extra info for De la guerre civile

Sample text

13 Georges Duby, dans Le dimanche de Bouvines, Paris, Gallimard, (Folio Histoire), 1985, [1973], par-delà l’analyse d’un événement historique, révèle le mythe fondateur dont la bataille de Bouvines est l’origine. Voir aussi Franco Cardini, La culture de la guerre, trad. A. Lévi, Paris, Gallimard, (NRF), 1992, [1982]. 14 Les tentatives actuelles pour établir une Cour pénale internationale permanente sont appelées sans doute à modifier les comportements dans la guerre. Ne perdons pas de vue pour autant qu’il s’agit d’un droit pénal d’après-guerre.

Notre incompréhension, voire notre refus, de considérer la guerre civile se répercute sur l’impossibilité manifeste de la nommer précisément et de la définir16. La guerre civile, par rapport à l’entité politique à renouveler, est un mouvement contradictoire où les parties d’un même tout sont en conflit systématique. La cité se détruit elle-même ; ce qui devrait être un est divisé en deux : la communauté, du fait de la défection d’un certain nombre de ses membres, n’existe plus. Si tel est le mouvement de la cité, comme l’a montré Machiavel, il n’en reste pas moins qu’il est contradictoire par le risque qu’il comporte de la cité s’écroulant sur elle-même.

C’est le degré d’ altération de la cité qui fait varier le contenu de l’entité politique9. Le seul critère du degré de violence est insuffisant, une guerre étrangère transformant souvent davantage une entité politique qu’une rébellion. Les listes de la polémologie nous ont appris qu’aucun critère ne peut être reconnu comme valable : le nombre de morts, les destructions matérielles, la part payée par les civils, tous ces degrés d’évaluation de la violence ne distinguent pas sûrement la guerre étrangère de la guerre civile, la seconde apparaîtra toujours comme la plus cruelle, sans que cela soit démontré.

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