By Lev Dorman

The current monograph in addition to the subsequent one (Dorman, M2005) is as a result of the greater than 50 years operating in cosmic ray (CR) study. After commencement in December 1950 Moscow Lomonosov country college (Nuclear and undemanding Particle Physics department, the crew of Theoretical Physics), my manager Professor D. I. Blokhintsev deliberate for me, as a winner of a pink degree, to proceed my schooling as an aspirant (a graduate pupil) to organize for Ph. D. in his very mystery item within the framework of what was once in these time referred to as the Atomic challenge. To my remorse the KGB withheld permission, and that i, including different Jewish scholars who had graduated Nuclear Divisions of Moscow and Leningrad Universities and Institutes, have been confronted with a true prospect of being with none paintings. It used to be our success that at the moment there has been being introduced into being the hot Cosmic Ray undertaking (what at the moment used to be additionally very mystery, yet no longer as mystery because the Atomic Problem), and after your time we have been directed to paintings in this venture. It used to be geared up and headed via Prof. S. N. Vernov (President of All-Union component to Cosmic Rays) and Prof. N. V. Pushkov (Director of IZMIRAN); Prof. E. L. Feinberg headed the theoretical a part of the Project.

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During this period many important results in investigations of CR meteorological and geomagnetic effects, solar-daily, semi-solar-daily, stellar-daily, 27-day, seasonal, and II-year variations were obtained. The main part of the results obtained during IGY was Lev Dorman Cosmic Rays in the Earth's Atmosphere and Underground 14 reported at the 6-th International Cosmic Ray Conference (Moscow, 1959). In particular, before direct measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (lMF), the strength of this field in corpuscular streams of the first type (solar wind) was estimated by cosmic rays: near the Earth's orbit about several 10-5 Gs.

As will be considered in detail in Dorman (M2005), by investigation of the CR - solar activity hysteresis phenomenon, it was determined 35 years ago for the first time that the dimension of the Heliosphere is about 100 AU (Dorman and Dorman, 1967a,b). For effective use of CR as a research instrument for many phenomena in the atmosphere and underground, in the magnetosphere, and in space, there were developed special methods of integral multiplicity and coupling functions, the spectrographic method, the method of variational coefficients and global-spectrographic method (acceptance vectors and spherical analyses).

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