By John Young

The e-book centres round an immense topic: the 1st 'confrontation' among the ideal final (or T'ien) of the Confucian cosmological order and the Christian anthropomorphic God as conveyed to the chinese language literati by means of the Western missionaries.

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Logically , Ricci continued , this meant that Ii came into existence only after things came into being. How then could it be the creator of all things? If Ii had existed before p'an Ku (the legendary creator) , Ricci asked , why was it initially static and unproductive? What made it start moving and become generative later? Ricci said: When a person has li in his heart , why is it that a cart is not produced automatically [by utilizing the Ii within him]? Why is it that this person has to get wood and other tools to make the cart?

Did the Chinese converts accept the Christian God , or did they become converts without this essential acceptance? Before discussing syncretism , it is impo付ant to determine if the Chinese converts rea 27 Confucianism and Christianity subjects , he generally 1avoured his works on Christian teachings. Some 01 his better known Christian treatises were the T' ien-chu chiao yao (The Teachings 01 the Master-01-T' ien) , Erh-shih-wu yen (The Twenty-five Sayings) and Chi-jen shih-p但n (Ten Essays on Exceptional Men).

People here never kill fowls or eat them. The common food is vegetables and rice; wheat , fish , apples , and other fruits are considered luxuries. 44 Although the Japanese did not worship any gods in the form of beasts , they had a class of monks. Xavier called them bonzes. According to Xavier , these monks were much less pure than the ordinary Japanese in that they engaged in lust and even openly acknowledged their ‘wickedness'. Moreover, there was one sect which had: . . communities of women .

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