By Christoph Stippich

The moment, revised variation of this winning textbook offers an up to date description of using preoperative fMRI in sufferers with mind tumors and epilepsies. state-of-the-art fMRI strategies are offered, with special attention of functional points, imaging and knowledge processing, common and pathological findings, and diagnostic percentages and obstacles. correct details on mind body structure, sensible neuroanatomy, imaging strategy, and method is supplied via famous specialists in those fields. in comparison with the 1st version, chapters were up-to-date to mirror the most recent advancements and specifically the present use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI. completely new chapters are incorporated on resting-state presurgical fMRI and the position of DTI and tractography in mind tumor surgical procedure. additional chapters tackle multimodality practical neuroimaging, mind plasticity, and pitfalls, counsel, and tricks.

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7) observed in typical fMRI responses (balloon model, Buxton et al. 1998). While CBF and oxygen extraction rate may quickly return to baseline, the elastic properties of the dilated venules will require many seconds until baseline size is reached. In the expanded space of the dilated vessels, more deoxygenated hemoglo- fMRI signal Positive BOLD response Post-stimulus undershoot Initial dip Overshoot Stimulus bin will accumulate reducing the MRI signal below the ­pre-stimulus baseline level. 2 The BOLD Effect The most common method of functional MRI is based on the BOLD effect (Ogawa et al.

The arterial part of the vascular system transports oxygenated blood through an increasingly fine-grained network of blood vessels until it reaches the capillary bed where the chemically stored energy (oxygen) is transferred to the neurons. If the brain is in resting state, 30–40 % of the oxygen is extracted from the blood in the capillary bed. The venous system transports the less-­ oxygenated blood away from the capillary bed. Oxygen is transported in the blood via the hemoglobin molecule. If hemoglobin carries oxygen, it is called oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2), while it is called deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) when it is devoid of oxygen.

8 The two gamma function allows to model typical hemodynamic impulse responses. One gamma function models the peak (τ) and dispersion (σ) of the positive BOLD response, while the second gamma function models the peak and dispersion of the undershoot response. e. g TR = 2 s) 1 21 41 61 Predicted fMRI response after convolution of box-car with HRF Stimulus timing = protocol (box-car for one condition) Fig. 9 Calculation of expected fMRI signal response for one condition of a protocol using convolution.

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