By Jon McGinnis, David C. Reisman

As is to be anticipated it isn't an indepth examine of every person philospher in fact. even though, for the newbie it's a speedy introductory dose of philosophy. The reader also needs to be conversant in Greek Philosophy and Kalam on the way to parent the tendencies in rules.

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This is just like what we observe during the phases of the new [232] and full Moons; for rainfall is greatest during new Moons and at the first of the month when [the Sun and Moon] are close to conjunction, whereas during full Moons the rainfall is usually less because the Moon’s light is stronger and it heats the atmosphere more intensely when compared with the time of conjunction. [In the latter case], the vapors are dissipated and rarefied by the Moon’s heating the atmosphere, and so there is usually no rainfall during the full Moon, whereas there usually is rainfall during conjunction, because the conjunction brings [the vapors] together and condenses them, and the atmosphere cools in the absence of the Moon’s light.

Hot, cold, wet, and dry are the primary contrary qualities. 3. ) has appointed to it. Generation and corruption affect only whatever is below the sphere of the Moon. 4. Below the sphere of the Moon are the four dominant elements, namely, fire, air, water, earth, and whatever is composed of them. These four elements are neither generated nor corrupt in toto, but parts of each one of them do generate and corrupt into one another. ) appointed to them. As for those things composed from [the elements] (I mean plants, animals, minerals, and the like) they are subject to generation and corruption completely in their individuals, but what remains of them, as in the case of the elements, is their forms, such as humanness, horseness, woodness, and mineralness.

Now, if the efficient cause is not something that exists, but is [itself] the final [cause], then the final cause does not exist. Whatever is above the existentd also does not exist, because whatever does not exist is indeterminate, and with anything that is indeterminate, whatever is above it and is indeterminate [219] also does not exist. So if the efficient cause does not exist, then the final cause does not exist. 11. The efficient cause is either proximate or remote. The remote efficient cause is like someone who shoots an arrow at an animal and kills it.

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