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Electropneumatics. Basic Level

Язык английский. В учебнике приведены терминология, основные понятия, графическое обозначение элементов электропневмоавтоматики, рассматриваются конструкция, принцип действия и методика расчета электрических преобразователей сигналов и датчиков сигналов.
Описаны конструкции и даны характеристики электропневмораспределителей, свободно программируемых контроллеров и исполнительных устройств систем электропневмоавтоматики. Изложены рекомендации по выбору, расчету и проектированию электропневматических систем управления технологическим оборудованием. Даны численные примеры расчета основных элементов.

Оглавление
Contents . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 1
Preface . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 4
Chapter 1 – advent . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 5
1. 1 functions of pneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6
1. 2 easy keep watch over engineering phrases . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8
1. three Pneumatic and electropneumatic controllers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14
1. four benefits of electropneumatic controllers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 17
Chapter 2 – basics of electric know-how. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 19
2. 1 Direct present and alternating present . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20
2. 2 Ohm's legislations. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 22
2. three functionality of a solenoid . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 24
2. four functionality of a capacitor . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26
2. five functionality of a diode. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27
2. 6 size in electric circuits . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 28
Chapter three – elements and assemblies within the electric sign keep watch over part. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 35
3. 1 strength provide unit . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36
3. 2 Push button and keep watch over switches. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37
3. three Sensors for measuring displacement and strain . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39
3. four Relays and contactors. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 49
3. five Programmable good judgment controllers. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 55
3. 6 total constitution of the sign processing half . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 56
Chapter four – Electrically actuated directional keep watch over valves. .. .. .. .. .. 59
4. 1 capabilities . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .60
4. 2 building and mode of operation. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 62
4. three varieties and pneumatic functionality facts . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .74
4. four functionality information of solenoid coils. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83
4. five electric connection of solenoid coils . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .86
Chapter five – constructing an electropneumatic keep an eye on approach. .. .. .. .89
5. 1 method for constructing a regulate method. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 90
5. 2 undertaking layout method . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .92
5. three pattern program: undertaking layout of a lifting equipment . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 96
5. four approach for enforcing the keep watch over procedure. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .109
Chapter 6 – Documentation for an electropneumatic keep an eye on procedure. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .113
6. 1 functionality diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .115
6. 2 functionality chart . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 119
6. three Pneumatic circuit diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 127
6. four electric circuit diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 144
6. five Terminal connection diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .158
Chapter 7 – security measures for electropneumatic keep an eye on platforms. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .169
7. 1 risks and protecting measures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .170
7. 2 impression of electrical present at the human physique . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .172
7. three Measures to guard opposed to injuries with electrical present . .. .. .. .. 175
7. four keep watch over panel and indicating parts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .176
7. five maintaining electric equipment
against environmental impacts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .181
Chapter eight – Relay keep watch over platforms . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 185
8. 1 purposes of relay keep watch over platforms in electropneumatics . .. .. .. .. 186
8. 2 Direct and oblique regulate. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 186
8. three good judgment operations . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 189
8. four sign garage . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 192
8. five hold up . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 198
8. 6 series keep an eye on with sign storage
by double solenoid valves . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 199
8. 7 Circuit for comparing keep an eye on parts . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 208
8. eight series keep watch over for a lifting gadget . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 211
Chapter nine – layout of modern
electropneumatic regulate structures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 235
9. 1 developments and advancements in electropneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 236
9. 2 Pneumatic drives. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 237
9. three Sensors . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 245
9. four sign processing . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 246
9. five Directional keep watch over valves . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 247
9. 6 glossy deploy techniques. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 251
9. 7 decreasing tubing attempt . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 261
9. three lowering wiring attempt. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 261
9. nine Proportional pneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 270
Appendix . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 279
Index. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 281
Standards. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 291

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Extra info for Circuit Cellar May 2010

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First, the CapSense seemed like overkill for this project. I needed only a single touch sensor, and I did not need to define the sensor area so specifically. In fact, for this particular application, it would be best to have a wide and unrestricted sensor area. Second, the effective distance at which proximity could be sensed left me unable to utilize the computer speakers’ plastic case to house the sensor and still reliably sense capacitance. I decided to build my own capacitive touch/proximity sensor using a standard CY8C27443 PSoC, which could also handle the interPhoto 2— Socketed gain resistors are behind the subject box’s speaker.

It may be right out of the box, a simple 8-bit cheaper to get free software to do microcontroller is sufficient for Figure 1— The useful W5100 chip has an Ethernet MAC the job; however, an appropriate this design. The ATmega128 has and a physical Ethernet interface. platform may not be available in enough internal flash memory certain segments of the network, (128 KB) and RAM (4 KB) for this or it may not be available at all as project, so external memory is not products on the market, it has both an needed.

Adjust the knob on the right side of the control box to 48 set the relative volume (see Photo 1b). TOUCH/PROXIMITY SENSING I began evaluating touch-sensing ICs, naturally, with the Cypress PSoC CapSense family of ICs (for the intercom’s touch-to-talk function). A CapSense can definitely do the job—several touch-sensitive buttons and even a touch slider can exist simultaneously. However, after some experiments, I had two issues. First, the CapSense seemed like overkill for this project. I needed only a single touch sensor, and I did not need to define the sensor area so specifically.

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