By Steve Ciarcia

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Electropneumatics. Basic Level

Язык английский. В учебнике приведены терминология, основные понятия, графическое обозначение элементов электропневмоавтоматики, рассматриваются конструкция, принцип действия и методика расчета электрических преобразователей сигналов и датчиков сигналов.
Описаны конструкции и даны характеристики электропневмораспределителей, свободно программируемых контроллеров и исполнительных устройств систем электропневмоавтоматики. Изложены рекомендации по выбору, расчету и проектированию электропневматических систем управления технологическим оборудованием. Даны численные примеры расчета основных элементов.

Оглавление
Contents . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 1
Preface . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 4
Chapter 1 – creation . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 5
1. 1 purposes of pneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6
1. 2 easy keep an eye on engineering phrases . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8
1. three Pneumatic and electropneumatic controllers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14
1. four merits of electropneumatic controllers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 17
Chapter 2 – basics of electric know-how. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 19
2. 1 Direct present and alternating present . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20
2. 2 Ohm's legislations. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 22
2. three functionality of a solenoid . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 24
2. four functionality of a capacitor . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26
2. five functionality of a diode. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27
2. 6 size in electric circuits . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 28
Chapter three – parts and assemblies within the electric sign keep an eye on part. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 35
3. 1 energy provide unit . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36
3. 2 Push button and regulate switches. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37
3. three Sensors for measuring displacement and strain . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39
3. four Relays and contactors. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 49
3. five Programmable good judgment controllers. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 55
3. 6 total constitution of the sign processing half . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 56
Chapter four – Electrically actuated directional keep watch over valves. .. .. .. .. .. 59
4. 1 features . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .60
4. 2 building and mode of operation. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 62
4. three forms and pneumatic functionality info . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .74
4. four functionality info of solenoid coils. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83
4. five electric connection of solenoid coils . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .86
Chapter five – constructing an electropneumatic keep an eye on process. .. .. .. .89
5. 1 method for constructing a keep watch over approach. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 90
5. 2 undertaking layout approach . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .92
5. three pattern software: venture layout of a lifting gadget . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 96
5. four approach for enforcing the regulate approach. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .109
Chapter 6 – Documentation for an electropneumatic regulate procedure. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .113
6. 1 functionality diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .115
6. 2 functionality chart . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 119
6. three Pneumatic circuit diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 127
6. four electric circuit diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 144
6. five Terminal connection diagram. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .158
Chapter 7 – safeguard measures for electropneumatic keep an eye on structures. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .169
7. 1 hazards and protecting measures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .170
7. 2 impact of electrical present at the human physique . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .172
7. three Measures to guard opposed to injuries with electrical present . .. .. .. .. 175
7. four regulate panel and indicating parts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .176
7. five preserving electric equipment
against environmental impacts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .181
Chapter eight – Relay keep an eye on platforms . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 185
8. 1 functions of relay keep watch over structures in electropneumatics . .. .. .. .. 186
8. 2 Direct and oblique keep an eye on. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 186
8. three good judgment operations . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 189
8. four sign garage . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 192
8. five hold up . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 198
8. 6 series keep an eye on with sign storage
by double solenoid valves . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 199
8. 7 Circuit for comparing regulate parts . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 208
8. eight series regulate for a lifting machine . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 211
Chapter nine – layout of modern
electropneumatic regulate structures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 235
9. 1 developments and advancements in electropneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 236
9. 2 Pneumatic drives. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 237
9. three Sensors . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 245
9. four sign processing . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 246
9. five Directional keep an eye on valves . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 247
9. 6 sleek install techniques. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 251
9. 7 decreasing tubing attempt . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 261
9. three lowering wiring attempt. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 261
9. nine Proportional pneumatics. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 270
Appendix . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 279
Index. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 281
Standards. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 291

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Additional resources for Circuit Cellar August 2010

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This source file is used by the compiler to create a file suitable for uploading to the X10 controller. The keywords “Device” and “Event” signal the compiler to look for a device definition or an event statement. The compiler syntax is obvious from this example. Note that times are on a 24-hour clock padded with zeros. 40 two-phase—that is, two of the electrical system’s three phases enter your panel box. The electrician tries to equalize the loads on each phase by having about the same number of wall outlets and lights on each.

Manhattanstyle construction atop a blank PCB works surprisingly well for RF projects, even if it looks somewhat fragile, so this isn’t really a kludge. The test fixture has a reasonably flat response from 100 kHz to a –3-dB rolloff at 300 MHz and shows a fraction of a dB variation between 1 and 50 MHz, which covers all the RF crystals in my collection. The fixture schematic in Figure 3 closely matches the physical layout in Photo 3. The 3-dB Tee attenuators provide some input and output isolation from the crystal’s wide impedance variations.

Transmitted over any distance. Given the voltage drops at the transmitter and receiver (more of this later), the only limitation is the volt drop (= current × resistance) over the length of wire. Several hundred yards is not uncommon and can be stretched to thousands. In addition, it is also inherently resistant to induced noise because of its differential nature. In some receiver configurations (transformer-coupled, for instance), the load is nonlinear, but this does not affect the current flow.

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