By Dr. Hugo Veenstra, John R. Long (auth.)
Realizing greatest functionality from excessive bit-rate and RF circuits calls for shut realization to IC know-how, circuit-to-circuit interconnections (i.e., the ‘interconnect’) and circuit layout. Circuit and Interconnect layout for RF and excessive Bit-rate purposes covers each one of those subject matters from concept to perform, with adequate element that will help you produce circuits which are ‘first-time right’. a radical research of the interaction among on-chip circuits and interconnects is gifted, together with functional examples in excessive bit-rate and RF functions. optimal interconnect geometries for the distribution of RF signs are defined, including basic versions for traditional interconnect geometries that catch attribute impedance and propagation hold up throughout a wide frequency diversity. The analyses additionally conceal single-ended and differential geometries, in order that the clothier can comprise the consequences of interconnections once envisioned interconnect lengths can be found. program of interconnect layout is illustrated utilizing a 12.5 Gb/s crosspoint change instance taken from a quantity creation part.
From the know-how viewpoint, transistor functionality and its dating to layout goals for prime bit-rate and RF purposes is generally mentioned. conventional figures of advantage, comparable to fT and fmaxand their relevance to circuit layout are mentioned, and new figures of benefit are brought which are proven to be hugely invaluable for broadband circuit and oscillator layout. additionally, an research of transistor operation at provide voltages above breakdown voltage BVCEO, is presented.
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Extra resources for Circuit and Interconnect Design for RF and High Bit-Rate Applications
It is then not necessary to include inductive effects. 45 mm, considerable reflections may occur and the interconnect must be modelled as transmission line. 11 mm. 4 Secondary Effects In this section, secondary effects on interconnect behaviour will be analysed. The influence of the passivation layer, the substrate and the skin effect on the transmission line impedance, loss and delay will be discussed. 5 µm PSG; εr = 4 Fig. 1 Effect of the Passivation Layer Modern IC processes involving more than three metal interconnect layers usually include chemical-mechanical polishing to planarise the wafer before each metal layer is deposited.
First, the design and realization 22 1 The Challenge of a test IC, studying the signal transfer across unloaded and loaded transmission lines, will be described. This will form the basis for the RF path of the cross-connect IC, which will also be described. To implement a similar cross-connect switch function operating up to 40 Gb/s per input is a major challenge, which will form the framework for the building blocks addressed in the rest of this book. A factor of 3 to 4 speed improvement is needed relative to the cross-connect switch described in Chapter 4.
The factor (εr,eff ) is also referred to as the slowing factor. A typical slowing factor for a√Si-based IC process for interconnect configurations shielded from the substrate is (εr,SiO2 ) ≈ 2. Note that the slowing factor is in general frequency-dependent. The substrate resistivity may play an important role in the RF signal transfer properties of transmission lines. Most modern SiGe BiCMOS and RF-CMOS IC 40 2 Interconnect Modelling, Analysis and Design processes use a substrate resistivity ρsub of 10–20 Ω·cm.