By R.M. Harrison, R.E. Hester

Because the realisation that the ozone layer holding the earth is ache vast depletion, atmospheric technology has been more and more within the highlight. it truly is acknowledged that we have to elevate our wisdom and knowing of the most probably effect that raises in UV- B radiation can have on existence in the world. Charting learn that encompasses the altering distribution of atmospheric ozone, adjustments in UV-B radiation and the ensuing results on photochemistry and organic platforms within the aquatic and terrestrial environments, factors and Environmental Implications of elevated UV-B Radiation attracts jointly specialists from the overseas neighborhood. additionally integrated is a dialogue of the emotive and hugely topical topic of pores and skin melanoma as concerning elevated UV-B radiation. As an updated and authoritative precis of the kingdom of this hugely complicated technological know-how, this booklet could be welcomed by way of all practitioners and researchers within the box.

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However, there are other facets of the climate and atmospheric constituents which are, or could, also change and interact with the ozone cycle to alter this prediction. A ir eraft Em issions Although the fleets of supersonic aircraft proposed in the 1970s did not materialize, there has been a vast increase in air traffic since that time, and there have been more recent proposals for increased numbers of supersonic aircraft flying at altitudes of 15-21 km in the stratosphere (subsonic aircraft generally fly in the troposphere).

Lonergan, Nature, 1998, 392, 589. Stratospheric Ozone Review Group, Stratospheric Ozone 1999,The Stationery Office, London, 1999. Ultraviolet Measurements and Impacts Review Group, The Potential Eflects ofozone Depletion in the United Kingdom, The Stationery Office, London, 1996. 25 A . R. 5%, the corresponding increase in UV will have its main impact on the production of singlet oxygen O(1D) and hence the hydroxyl free radical OH through + + + 0, hv + O(1D) 0, O(1D) H,O -+ OH + OH In the free troposphere, that is well above the pollution layer associated with urban areas, the associated change in the tropospheric ozone column is calculated to be a depletion of between 1 and 2%.

All the shortest wavelengths of solar radiation are absorbed in the outermost layers of _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ ~ ~~ Issues in Environmental Science and Technology No. 14 Causes and Environmental Implications of Increased UV-B Radiation 0The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000 17 A . R. Webb - Figure 1 Schematic representation of the extraterrestrial (thick dashed) and ground-level (thick solid) solar spectra and the ozone absorption spectrum (thick dotted). Biological action spectra for erythema (thin solid) and DNA damage (thin dashed) are shown as percent relative response, using the left vertical axis UV-C --+ t UV-B 260 I 280 300 r - UV-A - 320 WAVELENGTH (NM) the atmosphere, mainly by oxygen (N, N, and N,O also absorb the shortest wavelengths at altitudes above lOOkm), leaving a spectrum at the top of the stratosphere which is still rich in UV-C and UV-B radiation ( A > 200 nm).

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