By Lester Packer

Content material: advent to retinoids / Sheila M. O'Byrne and William S. Blaner -- creation to nutrition A: a dietary and existence cycle standpoint / A. Catharine Ross -- the basic position of diet A in sign transduction / Beatrice Hoyos and Ulrich Hammerling -- Chemical and metabolic oxidation of carotenoids / Frederick Khachik -- hole junctional intercellular communique: carotenoids and retinoids / Wilhelm Stahl and Helmut Sies -- Raman detection of carotenoids in human tissue / Werner Gellermann ... [et al.] -- Macular carotenoids in eye health and wellbeing / Richard A. Bone and John T. Landrum -- Beta-carotene cleavage items impair mobile and mitochondrial capabilities and should result in genotoxicity / Werner Siems ... [et al.] -- Formation of beta-carotene cleavage items in view of the actual stipulations in infected lung tissue / Olaf Sommerburg ... [et al.] -- organic job of lycopene opposed to smoke-induced lung lesions: focusing on the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 sign transduction pathway / Xiang-Dong Wang -- Retinoids and carotenoids as melanoma chemopreventive brokers: function of upregulated hole junctional conversation / Laura M. Hix ... [et al.] -- Lycopene and possibility of heart problems / Lauren Petr and John W. Erdman, Jr. -- impact of feeding after which depleting a excessive fruit and vegetable vitamin on oxidizability in human serum / Kyung-Jin Yeum ... [et al.] -- Mitochondria as novel goals for proapoptotic artificial retinoids / Numsen Hail, Jr., and Reuben Lotan -- Molecuar research of the diet A biosynthetic pathway / Johannes von Lintig -- law of transcription via antioxidant carotenoids / Yoav Sharoni ... [et al.] -- nutrition A in overall healthiness and affliction in constructing international locations / Machteld van Lieshout and Clive E. West -- Lycopene and prostate melanoma / Ute C. Obermüller-Jevic and Lester Packer -- Blood reaction to beta-carotene supplementation in people: an review throughout released experiences / Klaus Kraemer ... [et al.] -- New horizons in carotenoid learn / Helmut Sies and Wilhelm Stahl -- Carotenoids and heart problems / J. Michael Gaziano and Howard D. Sesso -- defense on beta-carotene / Norman I. Krinsky

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The RDA for pregnancy and lactation were based on the RDA for women of reproductive age, plus an amount to cover the accrual of vitamin A in fetal tissues, or an amount of vitamin A equal to that transferred from the lactating woman into her breast milk, respectively. Many questions remain regarding optimal vitamin A intakes. It would be desirable to have age-specific information on the absorption and utilization of vitamin A and its metabolites in neonates, children, adolescents, adult men and women, and the elderly, to estimate more precisely the dietary requirement for vitamin A across the life cycle.

The conversion factors thereby obtained have been used to define the vitamin A nutritional value of retinol- and carotenoid-containing foods in “retinol equivalents,” a term that describes an amount of vitamin A, whether from retinol or its carotenoid precursors, with the biological activity of 1 µg of all-trans-retinol. The units of activity and conversion factors themselves are revised periodically as new data are obtained on the efficiency of bioconversion of various carotenoids to retinol. The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) recently published by the IOM and Health Canada in 2002 (1) are expressed in a new unit of bioactivity, the Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE).

Because the lungs of premature infants are even less developed than those of term infants, the risk of death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and chronic lung disease is elevated in premature infants. It was therefore of interest to determine whether providing vitamin A could improve health outcomes in these very-low-birth-weight premature infants. A small clinical study by Shenai et al. (40) showed that administering vitamin A intramuscularly three times weekly could increase plasma retinol and RBP in very-low-birth-weight infants.

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