By Luigi Ambrosio, Elizabeth Tanner

There were very important advancements in fabrics and remedies for the therapy of spinal stipulations. Biomaterials for spinal surgical procedure summarises this study and the way it's being utilized for the advantage of sufferers. After an creation to the topic, half one studies primary matters resembling spinal stipulations and their pathologies, spinal a lot, modelling and osteobiologic brokers in spinal surgical procedure. half discusses using bone substitutes and synthetic intervertebral discs when half 3 covers themes similar to using injectable biomaterials like calcium phosphate for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in addition to scoliosis implants. the ultimate a part of the e-book summarises advancements in regenerative cures comparable to using stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration.

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However, CPC tend to mix with body fluids and lose their cohesion, whereas PMMA cements tend to stay compact. To prevent these problems, several approaches have been proposed. , by means of an expandable balloon. The cavity is then filled with the CPC. , 1999), and the CPC is then injected. During the setting reaction of the cement, CaP crystals grow and become partly interlocked, hence making the cement mechanically rigid. As CaP are brittle, the compressive © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2012 Introduction to biomaterials for spinal surgery 27 strength of a CPC is always much greater than its tensile strength.

H. and Mikos, A. G. (2002) ‘Controlled release of an osteogenic peptide from injectable biodegradable polymeric composites’, J Contr Rel, 84, 137–150. Heini, P. , Walchli, B. and Berlemann, U. (2000) ‘Percutaneous transpedicular vertebroplasty with PMMA: operative technique and early results. A prospective study for the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures’, Eur Spine J, 9, 445–450. , Lowman, A. and Marcolongo, M. (2006) ‘Synthesis and characterization of an injectable hydrogel with tunable mechanical properties for soft tissue repair’, Biomacromol, 7, 3223–3228.

The characteristic properties of PMMA are: © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2012 18 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ Biomaterials for spinal surgery high hardness, stiffness and strength, homopolymers are brittle, copolymers are tough, scratch-resistant, high gloss surface, capable of being polished, high heat distortion temperature, good processability and machinability and high melt viscosity due to the high chain stiffness caused by restricted rotation about the C-bonds in the backbone chains. PMMA is an extremely versatile thermoplastic polymeric material having the capacity to be moulded into fixed-design implants or to be polymerized at the time of surgery for tailor-made implant applications such as for filler material.

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