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Van't Hof, J . , and Kovacs, C. J. (1970). Mitotic delay in two biochemically different Gi cell populations in cultured roots of pea (Pisum sativum). Radiât. Res. 4 4 , 700-712. Virgin, H. , and Ehrenberg, L. (1953). Effects of β and γ-rays on the protoplasmic viscosity of Helodea densa cells. Physiol. Plant. 6, 1 5 9 - 1 6 5 . Von Borstel, R. C , and Rogers, R. W. (1958). Alpha particle bombardment of the Habrobracon egg. II. Response of the cytoplasm. Radiât. Res. 8, 2 4 8 - 2 5 3 . Whiting, A.

It is possible to see all internal structures and identify all the stages of mitosis. Again prophase was found to be the most sensitive stage in division; however, the sensitivity was manifested somewhat later than in Arbacia ova. As in the ova, an inhibition of protein synthesis by puromycin blocks the mitotic progress of neuroblasts both into and out of midmitosis. In grasshopper neuroblasts, the critical period occurs shortly before the breakdown of the nuclear membrane, when the cell shape is beginning to change and the cytoplasmic viscosity is falling rapidly.

Initially the "ionic yield" ratio was employed, which expressed the number of molecules changed per number of ionizations as MIN. Now "G values" are preferred, which give the number of molecules damaged per 100 eV. Okada (1970) provides a sample calculation and Ward (1975) tabulates G-value yields of base destruction and radiation products. These reviews and that of Adams (1972) present advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms but are mainly devoted to experiments with simple model systems.

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