By Henry N. Houérou
Protecting a space of over a hundred thirty million km2 spanning the Mediterranean, equator and tropics, the African continent contains a striking geographic variety. therefore, it's characterized by way of super variable climatic, edaphic and ecological stipulations, linked to quite a lot of average crops and flora and fauna, in addition to human inhabitants density, vegetation and cattle. during this booklet, Henry Le Hou?rou offers his bioclimatic and biogeographic category of Africa. The huge info give you the foundation for comparisons among numerous African areas, and with areas on different continents equivalent to Latin the USA or the Indian subcontinent. the implications represent a rational foundation for nationwide, local and sub-regional rural improvement making plans, and for agricultural examine facing facets comparable to plant and animal introductions, the extrapolation or interpolation of experimental or developmental findings, and ecosystems dynamics. attainable difficulties of purposes also are tested.
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Additional info for Bioclimatology and Biogeography of Africa
Warm currents such as the Guinea, the Mozambique and the Somali bring high rainfall in the Gulf of Guinea, Strait of Mozambique, S. Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania coastal zones. These currents have their counterparts on other continents that result in similar climatic consequences: the subtropical west sides of continents are thus arid while the east sides are rainy. The counterpart of the Benguela current is the Humboldt current of Chile/Peru, while the Canary current is the equivalent of the California current, etc.
As low vegetation cannot make full use of the condensation potential, the elimination of trees results in a significant aridization of the environment (Kassas 1956; Nagel 1956, 1961, 1962; Hassan 1974; Schulze and McGee 1978; Edwards et al. 1979; Le Houérou 1984b; Blot 1991; Acosta Baladon and Gioda 1991; Rioux et al. 1997; Canto 1998; Calamini et al. 1998; Jimenez et al. 1998; Puig et al. 1998). In forested areas, atmospheric water condensation zones are characterized by the presence of epiphytes, in particular hanging lichens of the genera Usnea (U.
Any reduction in the upwellings of the Guinea tropical current offshore of the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin, and therefore relatively high SSTs in that area, coincides with high rains on the northern shores of the Gulf of Guinea and with lower than normal rains in the Sudan and the Sahel belts. e. 3 Classification Criteria 39 Fig. 15 Thermal neutrality and human comfort as a function of temperature and air humidity (Canha da Piedade 1986) Fig. 16 Comfort diagram combining wind velocity, temperature and clothing, for a person sitting in the sunshine (Kristensen and Esben 1986) low rains in the Gulf and higher than normal rains in the Sudan and the Sahel ecozones.