By Jeff Hardin, Gregory Paul Bertoni

A preview of the mobilephone -- The chemistry of the telephone -- The macromolecules of the telephone -- Cells and organelles -- Bioenergetics : the circulate of strength within the mobilephone -- Enzymes : the catalysts of lifestyles -- Membranes : their constitution, functionality, and chemistry -- shipping throughout membranes : overcoming the permeability barrier -- Chemotrophic strength metabolism : glycolysis and fermentation -- Chemotrophic strength metabolism : cardio breathing -- Phototrophic strength metabolism : photosynthesis -- The endomembrane approach and peroxisomes -- sign transduction mechanisms : I. electric and synaptic signaling in neurons -- sign transduction mechanisms : II. messengers and receptors -- Cytoskeletal platforms -- mobile stream : motility and contractility -- past the mobilephone : mobilephone adhesions, telephone junctions, and extracellular buildings -- The structural foundation of mobile info : dna, chromosomes, and the nucleus -- The telephone cycle, dna replication, and mitosis -- Sexual copy, meiosis, and genetic recombination -- Gene expression: I. the genetic code and transcription -- Gene expression: II. protein synthesis and sorting -- The law of gene expression -- melanoma cells

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Keep your eyes open in the next few years, as this explosion of biological information will likely lead to a host of new fields of “–omics” studies! These and other techniques helped to launch an era of molecular genetics that continues to revolutionize biology. In the process, the historical strand of genetics that dates back to Mendel became intimately entwined with those of cytology and biochemistry, and the discipline of cell biology as we know it today came into being. “Facts” and the Scientific Method If asked what you expect to get out of a science textbook, you may reply that you intend to learn the facts about the particular scientific area that the textbook covers—cell biology, in the case of this text.

But it was considered quite unlikely that DNA could be the bearer of genetic information due to the apparently monotonous structure of DNA. By 1930, DNA was known to be composed of only four different nucleotides—and this did not seem to be enough variety to account for all the diversity seen in living organisms. Proteins, on the other hand, were much more diverse, being composed of 20 different amino acids. In fact, until the middle of the twentieth century, it was widely thought that proteins were the carriers of genetic information from generation to generation, since 10 Chapter 1 A Preview of the Cell they seemed to be the only nuclear components with enough variety to account for the obvious diversity of genes.

By 1930, DNA was known to be composed of only four different nucleotides—and this did not seem to be enough variety to account for all the diversity seen in living organisms. Proteins, on the other hand, were much more diverse, being composed of 20 different amino acids. In fact, until the middle of the twentieth century, it was widely thought that proteins were the carriers of genetic information from generation to generation, since 10 Chapter 1 A Preview of the Cell they seemed to be the only nuclear components with enough variety to account for the obvious diversity of genes.

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