By Hiram Gilbert

This moment version maintains to innovatively assessment the hardest thoughts in biochemistry for optimum comprehension in a quick time period. not like traditional texts or evaluate books that rigidity memorizing evidence, simple recommendations stresses the learning of primary suggestions, in order that the reader really comprehends the cloth and feels cozy utilizing it. Dr. Gilbert makes use of easy, jargon-free language and award-winning instructing concepts together with algorithms, mnemonics and medical examples.

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By convention, the potential difference is defined with respect to the inside—a more negative inside will have a negative membrane potential while a more positive inside will have a positive membrane potential. There are lots of questions that can be asked about your understanding of membrane potential. One common question is to give you a membrane potential, a few concentrations of ions, and ask which way will things move spontaneously. Which way will an ion move? It will move so that the ⌬G is Ͻ 0 (favorable).

However, cholesterol is just the right size to pack into the defects caused by cis-fatty acids. In a membrane (like most mammalian membranes) that contains significant cis-fatty acids, adding cholesterol will cause the membrane fluidity to decrease. DIFFUSION IN MEMBRANES Lateral diffusion is in the plane of the membrane, and transverse (flip-flop) diffusion is perpendicular to the membrane (through the membrane). Lateral diffusion (in two dimensions) is fast, and transverse diffusion is slow (or nonexistent) except for gases (CO2, NH3) and hydrophobic, uncharged, small molecules (such as cholesterol) To diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane (lateral diffusion), a molecule must simply move around in the lipid environment (including the polar head groups).

3. 4. Separates one area of the cell from another Provides a diffusion barrier Concentrates membrane-associated molecules Enables ion and concentration gradients Membranes separate one part of the cell from the other. Proteins and other molecules can be localized in the membrane. Membrane localization concentrates the molecules and makes it easier for them to find each other (two-dimensional diffusion) than it is for two molecules in solution (three-dimensional diffusion). Because most molecules can’t pass through the membrane by themselves, the cell machinery can create con22 BG McGraw-Hill: Gilbert, Basic Concepts in Biochemistry, JN 5036 3 • Membranes and Membrane Proteins 23 • centration gradients across membranes by pumping specific molecules out of the cell and/or by allowing specific molecules into the cell.

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