By C P Kaushik, S S Bhavikatti, Anubha Kaushik

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Skill Skilled Labour required for dressing and placing stones. Ordinary skill is enough. 6. Handling Heavy. Hence handling cost is more. Easy to handle. Hence handling cost is less. 7. Fire resistance Less More. 8. Moulding to desired shape Needs skilled labour Convenient 9. Uses For foundations, walls in building, dams, piers and abutment. For building load bearing and position walls. Framed constructions Framed construction starts with foundations for columns. Columns are then raised. C. Construction goes floor by floor.

Bushes, ponds and rivers are some of the obstacles for chaining and taping. Steel structures and objects attract compass needles and distort angle measurements. Magnetic declination at a site varies from time to time. In compass survey, this correction is required. To overcome these difficulties many survey equipments are developed and surveying is made more accurate and fast. Some of these methods are presented in this article. 1 Use of Modern Levels Earlier, dumpy levels which consists of a telescope, a level tube and levelling head was used for finding the difference between horizontal sight from level to the ground point where graduated staff is held.

A storage capacity of 1500 m3 is possible. Cement silos are provided with weigh hoppers which use knife edge balance principle. Larger plants use electromechanical system. For measuring water a water meter or a water batch is used. The aggregates weighers are generally identical to the cement weighers in the plant. The aggregates and cement are first dry mixed in hoppers using scrappers. Provision is made upto four types of concrete admixtures to be added with required quantity. Free fall or power mixers are used for thorough mixing of concrete.

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