By Sukhada Mohandas, Kundapura V. Ravishankar
Bananas and plantains are one of the most crucial nutrients and funds vegetation on the planet. they're cultivated in additional than one hundred thirty five nations, around the tropics and subtropics, with an annual worldwide construction of ca. one hundred thirty million metric tonnes. even though bananas are some of the most very important elements of nutrition defense in lots of constructing nations, banana creation is threatened by means of either abiotic and biotic stresses. those contain quite a lot of illnesses and pests, akin to bunchy best virus, burrowing nematodes, black Sigatoka or black leaf streak, Fusarium wilt, and so on. in recent times, massive growth has been made and several other biotechnological and genomic instruments were hired to assist comprehend and resolve the mysterious banana genome. Molecular and genomic reports have helped to decipher the Musa genome and its evolution. Genetic linkage map and entire genome sequencing of either Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana (progenitors of cultivated banana) have thoroughly replaced the best way of pondering and the technique on banana crop development. Whole-genome sequencing has helped to enhance the choice of quantitative characteristics reminiscent of yield, in addition to the choice of optimum mom and dad for constructing required hybrids in breeding courses. Gene isolation and the research of mutants have helped within the characterization of genes of agronomic worth and the linked regulatory sequences. With the arrival of molecular markers and new statistical instruments, it truly is now attainable to degree the range, determine genes and priceless alleles associated with vital agronomic qualities. additional those alleles might be included into cultivars via marker assisted choice or via transgenic procedure. Transgenic techniques are power instruments for direct move of those genes into renowned cultivars, that are more often than not now not amenable for traditional breeding strategies, in particular with vegetation corresponding to bananas that are sterile, triploid and heterozygous thereby making it tough to reconstruct the recurrent genotypes in banana. Transgenic options therefore have helped conquer the trouble of operating with sterile, triploid banana crop. within the final 5 years, huge, immense quantity of latest details and methods were generated for banana. A complete e-book entitled “Banana: Genomics and Transgenic methods for Genetic development” on banana genomics, most recent transgenic applied sciences and instruments to be had for greater crop improvement in banana will deal with some of these standards.
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Extra resources for Banana: Genomics and Transgenic Approaches for Genetic Improvement
Of the different methods applied to study interrelationships between Musa accessions and to group diverse germplasm, PCR-based techniques can efﬁciently detect levels of polymorphism. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) which provide codominant chromosome-speciﬁc markers have been used extensively in studies to assess genetic relations between accessions (Heslop-Harrison and Schwardacher 2007; Buhariwalla et al. 2005; Ravishankar et al. 2012). Inter-retroelement ampliﬁed polymorphisms (IRAP) (Nair et al.
High production, resistant to yellow and black Sigatokas and fruits present good taste Resistance to black Sigatoka and produce larger bunches than to the other False Horn cultivars Good characteristics of bunch, resistance to race 1 of Fusarium wilt and more tolerant to black Sigatoka than the Grande Naine, however its plants are higher than that cultivar, mainly in the second cycle Good characteristics to use unripe or ripe, resistant to race 1 Panama disease and tolerance to black Sigatoka High production and resistance to black Sigatoka, partial resistance to yellow Sigatoka and ripe fruits present very good taste Rowe and Rosales (1994) At IITA, evaluation of several subspecies of wild acuminata (banksii, burmannica, malaccensis, microcarpa) led to the observation that disease slowing model of partial resistance was durable than a gene for gene hypersensitive reaction (van den Planck 1982; Foure et al.
2011). 5 years. Plants are medium statured producing 14–16 kg bunch. The fruits are straight and slightly angular turning to yellow on ripening. It also displayed resistance to Sigatoka leaf spot, Fusarium wilt, nematodes and other insect pests. BRS-2 is medium statured completing crop cycle in 10–11 months. Average weight of bunch ranges from 15 to 20 kg with short, stout, dark green fruits compactly arranged and ripening to golden yellow colour. The hybrid has a striking resemblance to Poovan in plant and fruit characters.