By Bertrand Russell

From old Greek philosophy to the French Revolution to the fashionable welfare country, in Authority and the Individual Bertrand Russell tackles the perennial questions about the stability among authority and human freedom. With attribute readability and deep realizing, he explores the formation and function of society, schooling, ethical evolution and social, low-priced and highbrow growth. First of the famous BBC Reith lectures, this excellent assortment can provide Russell at his highbrow best.

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Extra resources for Authority and the Individual (Routledge Classics)

Sample text

In fact, the Dactyls of Mo~nt Ida. in Phrygia, where the use of iron is very ancient, are credlled WIth mventmg metallurgy. For the Dactyls, as for Hephaestus, metallurgy and magIC are mseparable. Hephaestus is also associated with other figures who co~bine metallurgy and magic: the Telchines, the demons of Rhodes (assocIated wllh seals), and the Cabiri, originally from Lemnos (identified with crabs). Hence, Hephaestus appears as the god of the alloy par excellence. As a metallurgist, he can make chains and break them.

E. saw a number of attacks directed against religious beliefs and the practice of magic in the name of speculative thought, which was based principally on concepts of "nature" and" causality," and which tended to emphasize observation. For doctors and certain other specialists, "nature" (physis) implied an inherently consistent relationship between cause and effect. Therefore they denIed any more or less transcendent intervention of divine or IIsupernatural" forces that would disrupt the regularity of that connection.

For Heraditus is not interested in the derivation of the world from an original substance; he is concerned with the real organizing principle of the world as it is now (and as it always has been). Like Xenophanes, Heraditus has a poor opinion of the capacity of humanity in general for grasping the truth ("The knowledge of the most famous of men is but opinion," frg. 28; "Human nature has no insight, but divine nature has it," frg. 78), but unlike him, he feels that he himself has grasped it. For Heraditus attained a vision of how the world works, of what it is that makes it a world (kosmosj, in the sense of an ordered whole.

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