By Dirk Berg-Schlosser, Jeremy Mitchell

Authoritarianism and Democracy in Europe, 1919-39 deals a entire research of the survival or breakdown of democracy in interwar Europe. The participants discover components akin to the ancient, social-structural and political-cultural backgrounds of the guidelines that eu nations tried to enforce to counter the realm monetary challenge of 1929. The research serves as an incredible backdrop for the evaluate of present democratic advancements in former communist Europe and highlights a number of the difficulties and hazards thinking about the transition procedure.

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Such discrimination often extended to social policy, particularly land reform – one of the key issues in largely agrarian Eastern Europe. In Czechoslovakia, often praised as the model democracy of the region, the Constituent National Assembly was made up of Czech delegates, selected according to the strength of Czech parties in the 1911 Reichsrat elections as well as Slovak representatives who had been appointed by proCzech Slovak leaders. 1 Titular nationalities and major minorities as a percentage of population with the dominant stance of the minorities towards multinational interwar East European states Country (4% or more) Titular nationality of minority towards multinational states Major minorities Dominant stance Czechoslovakia Czecho-Slovaka (66%) Poland Poles (66%) German (23%) Hungarian (5%) Ruthenian (4%) Ukrainian/East Slav (19%) Jewish (10%) German (4%) Hungarian (9%) German (4%) Jewish (4%) rejectionist rejectionist instrumentalist rejectionist Romania a Romanian (72%) accommodationist rejectionist rejectionist instrumentalist accommodationist Census figures counted Czechs and Slovaks together.

Promises of democracy rang hollow to national groups excluded from state-forming processes. But the cultural arrogance of the largest minorities made them less receptive to political compromise with those they did not consider their equals. The intolerance of the dominant nation-builders was often confronted by the equal inflexibility of major national minorities. The nation-building position of the titular nationality and the rejectionist stance of the largest minority explains why party politics in these ‘oversized’ states during the early interwar period often increased ethnic tensions while postponing social change.

Regardless of one’s political colour – socialist, Catholic social, or German nationalist – popular opinion in Austria forced consensus on the issue of ‘German unity’. 2 Irredentism in interwar East Central Europe Country ‘Revisionist’ claim Fascist or para-military group involved Austria Merger with Germany, Sudetenland, South Tyrol Transylvania, Slovakia, Vojvodina Heimwehr Hungary Arrow Cross nationalists), called for a merger with Germany (Simon 1978: 83). ) This consensus in favour of unification with Germany only broke down in the 1930s when Hitler’s rise to power led the socialists to oppose merger with Germany while the Christian socialists attempted to build an authoritarian alternative to Nazism based on a separate Austrian identity.

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