By Michael Mendillo, Andrew Nagy, J. H. Waite Jr.

Published by way of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.

Atmospheres are an important parts of our universe. they're the one observable areas of stars and titanic planets, either inside of and past our sunlight approach. a few terrestrial-size our bodies (Venus, Earth, Mars, Titan and Triton) have everlasting atmospheres whereas others (e.g., Mercury, Moon, Io, and Europa) have tenuous gaseous envelopes that adjust day-by-day. Comets are tiny our bodies through planetary yardsticks, yet their atmospheres may be the biggest seen items within the evening sky. Atmospheric technology strives to appreciate how any such assorted set of atmospheres shape, evolve, and disappear.

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As noted by Young et al. [1997], we are unable t o characterize the waves uniquely because we have only a 1-D trace of t h e wave amplitude. Different assump­ tions a b o u t t h e phase speed would lead t o more or less energetic waves. • Bulk viscosity. T h e models presented t o d a t e have included only shear viscosity, b u t it is likely t h a t bulk viscosity is i m p o r t a n t . • Ion viscosity. T h e models presented t o date have neglected damping of t h e waves through their in­ teraction with t h e ionosphere.

These cycles are able t o account for t h e stability of C 0 in t h e martian atmosphere. Photochemistry plays an interesting role in t h e es­ cape of water from Mars. T h e loss of H from t h e up­ per atmosphere follows t h e dissociation of H t h a t has diffused upward from t h e lower atmosphere where it re­ sults from t h e photolysis of H 0 . , if t h e crust is as oxidized as it can get) then t h e oxygen produced in t h e water photoly­ sis must escape from t h e upper atmosphere as well, at 1/2 t h e hydrogen r a t e .

T h e ordering of E a r t h ' s major species abundances dif­ fers from those of Venus and Mars due to t h e pres­ ence of b o t h oceans (accounting for the low CO2 abun­ dance through dissolution and precipitation as carbon­ ates) and life (accounting for the high abundance of O2 through photosynthesis and the burial of organic car­ bon). Regarding the upper atmospheres of the terres­ trial planets, on each there are species t h a t s a t u r a t e and condense out below the tropopause, and only t h e most volatile are considered here.

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