occipital cortex Association Nuclei (and Association Cortex) These nuclei are reciprocally connected to association areas of the cerebral cortex.

Note to the Learner: The thalamus is being introduced at this point because it is involved throughout the study of the brain. The learner should learn the names and understand the general organization of the various nuclei at this point. It is advised to consult this diagram, as the cerebral cortex is described in the following illustrations. Each of the specific relay nuclei involved in one of the pathways will be introduced again with the functional systems (in Section B) and, at that point, the student should return to this illustration.

ADDITIONAL DETAIL Structures belonging to the cerebellum are explained in Figure 54–Figure 57. Orientation 25 Fibers of internal capsule D Optic nerve (CN II) Optic chiasm Oculomotor nerve (CN III) Mammillary body Cerebral peduncle Trochlear nerve (CN IV) Trigeminal nerve (CN V) Po Middle cerebellar peduncle Abducens nerve (CN VI) Facial nerve (CN VII) Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) Flocculus Inferior cerebellar peduncle O Py Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) Vagus nerve (CN X) Pyramidal decussation Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) First cervical spinal nerve (C1) D = Diencephalon Po = Pons Py = Pyramid O = Inferior olive FIGURE 7: Brainstem 2 — Ventral View (photograph) © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 26 Atlas of Functional Neutoanatomy FIGURE 8A BRAINSTEM 3 CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI: MOTOR The cranial nerves are peripheral nerves that supply the head region, except for the olfactory (CN I) and optic (CN II) nerves.

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