By Werner K. Honig and P. H. R. James (Eds.)

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Retention and warming-up effects in paired-associate learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1949, 3 9 , 6 6 9 - 6 7 5 . Jenkins, J. , & Dallenbach, K. M. Obliviscence during sleep and v/ai\áng. American Journal of Psychology, 1924, 35, 6 0 5 - 6 1 2 . 42 HENRY Jones, M. B. Effect, change, and expectation of reward. Psychological 227-233. Review, GLEITMAN 1952, 59, Kamin, L. J. The retention of an incompletely learned avoidance response. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1957, 5 0 , 4 5 7 - 4 6 0 .

Many suggestions have been offered to explain failures to obtain PI in various choice situations: the use of noncorrection procedures, the employment of short retention intervals, overly high terminal acquisition levels of the second-learned task, negative transfer from the first-learned task, and distributed practice on either the first or second task. Unfortunately none of these can by themselves account for all of the findings. , Maier & Gleitman, 1967). 5% correct responding (Chiszar & Spear, 1968a).

The data for the subgroups were therefore combined and results are presented for the two main groups as such. Figure 11 presents mean total times (in log seconds) for the 16 trials of acquisition and the five trials of the retention test for Groups C and V. The figure indicates that the stimulus dimensions we varied were attended to: Group V shows a performance decrement on Trial 5 when the change was first introduced. It is also clear that there was forgetting: The performance scores on the first retention test are worse for both groups than those on the last day of acquisition.

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