By Tadashi Inagami, Masato Mizukoshi, Deng-Fu Guo (auth.), Juan M. Saavedra, Pieter B. M. W. M. Timmermans (eds.)
From molecular biology to medical purposes of selective receptor blockade, the current quantity compiles the newest advances of this rising box. Of specific significance is the eye given to the newly came across AT2 receptors, and the body structure and pathophysiology of angiotensin receptor subtypes. The e-book will offer clinicians treating heart problems and high blood pressure with a clearer knowing of this therapeutically vital and complex hormone.
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3. 107 Phospholipase A2 hydrolyzes the bond in position 2, attaching fatty acids to the glycerol backbone of phospholipids such as phosphatidyIcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, thus releasing free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. The fatty acid from position 2 in phospholipids is frequently arachidonic acid. This fatty acid is the rate-limiting precursor for the generation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In proximal tubular cells, ANG II-stimulated phospholipase A2 releases arachidonic acid 108 that can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase.
2). Additional evidence exists for coupling to other ion channels such as potassium and sodium. Honnone coupling to different effectors is usually mediated by different receptor SUbtypes, each being linked to a specific effector. This is the case for a-adrenergic receptors. The al subtype is coupled to phospholipase C activation, whereas the a2 subtype mediates adenylate cyclase inhibition. A subtype was stably expressed in CHO cells. 84 In that system, the ANG II receptor appeared to be coupled to three effectors.
Further studies will undoubtedly scrutinize the molecular basis of receptor coupling to the many cytoplasmic effectors activated by ANG II (see Section 13). 7. ORGANIZATION OF THE AT1 RECEPTOR GENE Another area of intense current interest is the organization of the AT 1 receptor gene and identification of the factors controlling its transcription. 57,58 The gene encoding the AT I receptor is comprised of at least four exons and three introns (Fig. 1, inset) and spans over 80 kb. 57 ,59 The third exon includes the entire coding region and segments of the 5' and 3' untranslated flanking regions.