By Edwin P. Alexander

Colorful tales of the previous steam engines of yesteryear fill those pages — from the steam carriage operated at the streets of Paris in 1769 to the potent locomotives that thundered around the American West within the latter half the nineteenth century. ninety eight plates of excellent, infrequent illustrations, many rendered by way of the author.

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40 · Fractography of Glasses and Ceramics V Effect of Stress Gradient at the Vicinity of a Crack Tip on Ionic Diffusion in Silicate Glasses Figure 5 500 1000 Wavenumber ( cm 1 ) 1500 Figure 5: Raman spectra for bulk glass and nodules. The insert corresponds to high wave number spectrum for nodules (no signal was detected for bulk glass). (4) it! » c c — -5- -10- Lu- m ■ Carboxylate salt ,1 500 1000 ir * *L Wavenumber ( cm ' ) 1500 Figure 6: Raman spectrum for nodules (bulk glass contribution was removed).

These data can be well interpreted by a diffusion process. The source of diffusing species is locating on (in the vicinity) crack lips (in our 2D AFM study; crack surfaces in the case of general 3D conditions). Values of diffusion coefficient were measured at room temperature for different rates of relative humidity. - By further chemical microanalyses we revealed that nodules are characterized by a higher concentration of sodium element than in bulk glass. We then deduced that Na ions were migrating during the diffusion process.

He, M. R. Turner, A. G. 4c/a Mater. 43, 3453-3458 (1995). I2 S. N. Magonov, V. -H. Whangbo, "Phase Imaging and Stiffness in TappingMode Atomic Force Microscopy," Surf Sei. 375, L385-L391 (1997). I3 L. Nony, R. -P. /. Chem. Phys. 111,4, 1615-1627 (1999). 14 R. Garcia, R. Perez, "Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy Methods", Surf Sei. Reports, 47, 197-301 (2002). I5 L. Zitzler, S. Herminghaus, F. Mugele, "Capillary Forces in Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy", Phys. Rev. B, 66, 155436 (2002). 16 M.

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