By Edwin P. Alexander
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Additional resources for American locomotives: A pictorial record of steam power 1900-1950
40 · Fractography of Glasses and Ceramics V Effect of Stress Gradient at the Vicinity of a Crack Tip on Ionic Diffusion in Silicate Glasses Figure 5 500 1000 Wavenumber ( cm 1 ) 1500 Figure 5: Raman spectra for bulk glass and nodules. The insert corresponds to high wave number spectrum for nodules (no signal was detected for bulk glass). (4) it! » c c — -5- -10- Lu- m ■ Carboxylate salt ,1 500 1000 ir * *L Wavenumber ( cm ' ) 1500 Figure 6: Raman spectrum for nodules (bulk glass contribution was removed).
These data can be well interpreted by a diffusion process. The source of diffusing species is locating on (in the vicinity) crack lips (in our 2D AFM study; crack surfaces in the case of general 3D conditions). Values of diffusion coefficient were measured at room temperature for different rates of relative humidity. - By further chemical microanalyses we revealed that nodules are characterized by a higher concentration of sodium element than in bulk glass. We then deduced that Na ions were migrating during the diffusion process.
He, M. R. Turner, A. G. 4c/a Mater. 43, 3453-3458 (1995). I2 S. N. Magonov, V. -H. Whangbo, "Phase Imaging and Stiffness in TappingMode Atomic Force Microscopy," Surf Sei. 375, L385-L391 (1997). I3 L. Nony, R. -P. /. Chem. Phys. 111,4, 1615-1627 (1999). 14 R. Garcia, R. Perez, "Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy Methods", Surf Sei. Reports, 47, 197-301 (2002). I5 L. Zitzler, S. Herminghaus, F. Mugele, "Capillary Forces in Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy", Phys. Rev. B, 66, 155436 (2002). 16 M.